This applies to both SharePoint 2007 and 2010. In MOSS Enterprise, and the 2010 version of Enterprise. There is an out-of-box web part called the Text Filter Web Part. Basically, when you put this web part on a page, and put a list or library web part on the same page, you then create a web part connection that sends the text typed in the box as a filter to one of the columns in the web part, like this:
The name Molly Clark had to be typed in exactly. So, if you typed “Molly”, this record would not come up.
People use the text filter web part when they just want to search a single column in a list or library. Otherwise, you’d simply use the “Search” box at the top of the screen, choose “This List” or “This Site” and perform SharePoint searches that way.
Laura Rogers doing a great solution to be able to partially filtering rather than the whole word, find more in the below link: